Design and Development of a Rapid Thermal Annealing Setup for Fast Processing of Solar Cells

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Rapid Thermal Processing(RTP)
Potential to overcome challenges such as
1. Scalability
2. Stability landscape Amenable to Roll to roll processing Processing in controlled atmosphere Low thermal budget of processing


• Compact and pinhole free surface morphology of c- TiO2.
• Pinhole free surface morphology of FAPbI3, with large grain size.
• a- phase of FAPbI3 was found to be more stable when annealed in RTP.
• RTP can be utilized for roll to roll processing of perovskite cell.
• Much reduced thermal budget of processing compared to Hotplate.
• Processing completed in few hours compared to a day.


A method of preparing titanium dioxide based transparent and thin films and a product thereof. Sooraj Kumar, Md. Imteyaz Ahmad (Patent Filed, Application number-201911008546).